Torch: Generally, a flame producing device that is hand held. Often the terms torch and burner are used interchangeably.
Burner: Generally, a flame producing device that is mounted to a stand or base and is not intended to be hand held. Often the terms burner and torch are used interchangeably. Also, the head of a burner or torch, that produces the flame, is called a burner face.
Hose Fittings: The twin lead Grade T hoses that are used for all types of fuel gases and oxygen have a "B" size screw-on connections where they attach to the regulators. The other end may also have a "B" connection or may just be cut clean and use hose clamps to secure them to the torch, depending upon how the torch was designed.
Valve: Controls the gas flow through the torch to the burner.
Flame: All of the fire(s) produced by the torch or burner. This term is often interchangeable with Fire.
Fire: The flame produced from one part of the torch or burner, such as the center fire as opposed to the outer fire. This term is often interchangeable with Flame.
Candle: The short blue flame that is within the overall flame.
Orifice: A hole in the burner face that allows mixed gases to flow through. This term is often interchangeable with Port.
Port: A hole on the burner face that allows only one gas to flow through. This term is often interchangeable with Orifice.
Premix: A torch or burner that mixes the fuel gas with the oxygen before either exits the burner face.
Surface mix: A torch or burner that keeps the fuel gas and oxygen separated until they exit the burner face.
Neutral Flame: A flame that has a proper balance of fuel gas and oxygen in the working area of the flame. This type of flame is usually very straight and narrow. It is the flame most used as it is the hottest, cleanest and does not chemically react with the glass.
Reduction Flame: A flame that has an excessive amount of fuel gas in the working area of the flame. This type of flame usually has a barrel shape and can be bushy. It is a cooler flame and is used to slowly heat up shocky glass or used when you want the flame to have a chemical reaction with the glass, such as when using reduction frits.
Oxidation Flame: A flame that has an excessive amount of oxygen in the working area of the flame. This type of flame is often used when working with dichroic glass to help prevent the coating from burning off as well as many borosilicate colors. When a surface mix torch or burner is adjusted to have an extremely high amount of oxygen, the flame will be pinched in, short and can have a needle point. Around the flame is a jacket of unused oxygen. It is a cooler flame and is used to work in tight areas where you want only the glass touched by the flame to soften. The cool jacket of oxygen around the flame keeps the glass surrounding the flame contact point cooler.
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